Contact Us:

Astrology and astronomy

Astrology and astronomy

01-03-2022 Grenius.org Estimated reading time: 6 minutes, 37 seconds
Astrology and astronomy
Astrology and astronomy were archaically treated together (Latin: astrologia), and were only gradually separated in Western 17th century philosophy (the 'Age of Reason') with the rejection of astrology.
During the later part of the medieval period, astronomy was treated as the foundation upon which astrology could operate.

Since the 18th century they have come to be regarded as completely separate disciplines.

Astronomy, the study of objects and phenomena originating beyond the Earth's atmosphere, is a science and is a widely studied academic discipline.
Astrology, which uses the apparent positions of celestial objects as the basis for the prediction of future events, is a form of divination and a pseudoscience having no scientific validity.

Early science, particularly geometry and astronomy/astrology (astronomia), was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars.
The compass in this 13th-century manuscript is a symbol of God's act of creation, as many believed that there was something intrinsically divine or perfect that could be found in circles.
In pre-modern times, most cultures did not make a clear distinction between the two disciplines, putting them both together as one.
In ancient Babylonia, famed for its astrology, there were not separate roles for the astronomer as predictor of celestial phenomena, and the astrologer as their interpreter; both functions were performed by the same person.
This overlap does not mean that astrology and astronomy were always regarded as one and the same.
In ancient Greece, pre-Socratic thinkers such as Anaximander, Xenophanes, Anaximenes, and Heraclides speculated about the nature and substance of the stars and planets.
Astronomers such as Eudoxus (contemporary with Plato) observed planetary motions and cycles, and created a geocentric cosmological model that would be accepted by Aristotle.
This model generally lasted until Ptolemy, who added epicycles to explain the retrograde motion of Mars.
(Around 250 BC, Aristarchus of Samos postulated a proto-heliocentric theory, which would not be reconsidered for nearly two millennia (Copernicus), as Aristotle's geocentric model continued to be favored.) The Platonic school promoted the study of astronomy as a part of philosophy because the motions of the heavens demonstrate an orderly and harmonious cosmos.
In the third century BC, Babylonian astrology began to make its presence felt in Greece.
Astrology was criticized by Hellenistic philosophers such as the Academic Skeptic Carneades and Middle Stoic Panaetius.
However, the notions of the Great Year (when all the planets complete a full cycle and return to their relative positions) and eternal recurrence were Stoic doctrines that made divination and fatalism possible.

In the Hellenistic world, the Greek words 'astrologia' and 'astronomia' were often used interchangeably, but they were conceptually not the same.
Plato taught about 'astronomia' and stipulated that planetary phenomena should be described by a geometrical model.
The first solution was proposed by Eudoxus.
Aristotle favored a physical approach and adopted the word 'astrologia'.
Eccentrics and epicycles came to be thought of as useful fictions.
For a more general public, the distinguishing principle was not evident and either word was acceptable.
For the Babylonian horoscopic practice, the words specifically used were 'apotelesma' and 'katarche', but otherwise it was subsumed under the aristotelian term 'astrologia'.

In his compilatory work Etymologiae, Isidore of Seville noted explicitly the difference between the terms astronomy and astrology (Etymologiae, III, xxvii) and the same distinction appeared later in the texts of Arabian writers.
Isidore identified the two strands entangled in the astrological discipline and called them astrologia naturalis and astrologia superstitiosa.

Astrology was widely accepted in medieval Europe as astrological texts from Hellenistic and Arabic astrologers were translated into Latin.
In the late Middle Ages, its acceptance or rejection often depended on its reception in the royal courts of Europe.
Not until the time of Francis Bacon was astrology rejected as a part of scholastic metaphysics rather than empirical observation.
A more definitive split between astrology and astronomy in the West took place gradually in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when astrology was increasingly thought of as an occult science or superstition by the intellectual elite.
Because of their lengthy shared history, it sometimes happens that the two are confused with one another even today.
Many contemporary astrologers, however, do not claim that astrology is a science, but think of it as a form of divination like the I-Ching, an art, or a part of a spiritual belief structure (influenced by trends such as Neoplatonism, Neopaganism, Theosophy, and Hinduism).

Distinguishing characteristics

Astrologer-astronomer Richard of Wallingford is shown measuring an equatorium with a pair of compasses in this 14th-century work.
The primary goal of astronomy is to understand the physics of the universe.
Astrologers use astronomical calculations for the positions of celestial bodies along the ecliptic and attempt to correlate celestial events (astrological aspects, sign positions) with earthly events and human affairs.
Astronomers consistently use the scientific method, naturalistic presuppositions and abstract mathematical reasoning to investigate or explain phenomena in the universe.
Astrologers use mystical or religious reasoning as well as traditional folklore, symbolism and superstition blended with mathematical predictions to explain phenomena in the universe.
The scientific method is not consistently used by astrologers.

Astrologers practice their discipline geocentrically and they consider the universe to be harmonious, changeless and static, while astronomers have employed the scientific method to infer that the universe is without a center and is dynamic, expanding outward per the Big Bang theory.

Astrologers believe that the position of the stars and planets determine an individual's personality and future.
Astronomers study the actual stars and planets, but have found no evidence supporting astrological theories.
Psychologists study personality, and while there are many theories of personality, no mainstream theories in that field are based on astrology.
(The Myers-Briggs personality typology, based on the works of Carl Jung, has four major categories that correspond to the astrological elements of fire, air, earth, and water.
This theory of personality is used by career counselors and life coaches but not by psychologists.)

Both astrologers and astronomers see Earth as being an integral part of the universe, that Earth and the universe are interconnected as one cosmos (not as being separate and distinct from each other).
However, astrologers philosophically and mystically portray the cosmos as having a supernatural, metaphysical and divine essence that actively influences world events and the personal lives of people.
Astronomers, as members of the scientific community, cannot use in their scientific articles explanations that are not derived from empirically reproducible conditions, irrespective of their personal convictions.

Historical divergence

An engraving by Albrecht Dürer featuring Mashallah, from the title page of the De scientia motus orbis (Latin version with engraving, 1504).
As in many medieval illustrations, the compass here is an icon of religion as well as science, in reference to God as the architect of creation.
For a long time the funding from astrology supported some astronomical research, which was in turn used to make more accurate ephemerides for use in astrology.
In Medieval Europe the word Astronomia was often used to encompass both disciplines as this included the study of astronomy and astrology jointly and without a real distinction; this was one of the original Seven Liberal Arts.
Kings and other rulers generally employed court astrologers to aid them in the decision making in their kingdoms, thereby funding astronomical research.
University medical students were taught astrology as it was generally used in medical practice.

Astronomy and astrology diverged over the course of the 17th through 19th centuries.
Copernicus didn't practice astrology (nor empirical astronomy; his work was theoretical), but the most important astronomers before Isaac Newton were astrologers by profession - Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei.

Also relevant here was the development of better timekeeping instruments, initially for aid in navigation; improved timekeeping made it possible to make more exact astrological predictions-predictions which could be tested, and which consistently proved to be false.
By the end of the 18th century, astronomy was one of the major sciences of the Enlightenment model, using the recently codified scientific method, and was altogether distinct from astrology.

Tags:

astrology

astronomy

astrography





Read also:

Polparts - Your supplier for all (electronic-) repair / replacement / spare parts in appliances & electronics!

Grenius.org
Polparts - Your supplier for all (electronic-) repair / replacement / spare parts in appliances & electronics!
Polparts - Your supplier for all genuine / original / alternative / special - repair / replacement / maintenance / service / spare - parts / components / products /...

Read more...
Dale E. Lehman - mystery, science fiction, humor, and more

Grenius.org
Dale E. Lehman - mystery, science fiction, humor, and more
Dale E. Lehman is a writer, veteran software developer, amateur astronomer, and bonsai artist in training. He principally writes mysteries, science fiction, and humor. In addition to his novels, his writing has appeared in Sky & Telescope...

Read more...
First Aid Association Spijkenisse -Nissewaard

Grenius.org
First Aid Association Spijkenisse -Nissewaard
Spijkenisse First Aid Association An accident happened in no time. Often cleaning and a plaster is enough, but sometimes it is more serious. And when do you get professional help? In addition, you notice that more and more people are...

Read more...
Astrology and astronomy

01-03-2022 Grenius.org
Astrology and astronomy
Astrology and astronomy were archaically treated together (Latin: astrologia), and were...

Read more...
Astronomy

01-02-2022 Grenius.org
Astronomy
Astronomy (from Greek, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and...

Read more...
Astrology

01-01-2022 Grenius.org
Astrology
Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to discern information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, and...

Read more...
Hydrogen

01-12-2021 Grenius.org
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the formula H2. It is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, and...

Read more...
LGBTQIAP+

01-11-2021 Grenius.org
LGBTQIAP+
LGBTQIAP+ is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the initialism, as well as some of its common variants, functions as an umbrella term for sexuality and gender identity. It may...

Read more...
Energy label

01-10-2021 Grenius.org
Energy label
EU Directive 92/75/EC established an energy consumption labelling scheme. The directive was implemented by several other directives thus most white goods, light bulb packaging and cars must have an EU Energy Label clearly displayed when offered...

Read more...
Biodiversity

01-09-2021 Grenius.org
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the...

Read more...
Co2/Carbon neutral

01-08-2021 Grenius.org
Co2/Carbon neutral
Carbon neutrality is a state of net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be achieved by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal (often through carbon offsetting) or by eliminating emissions from society (the transition to the...

Read more...
Climate change

01-07-2021 Grenius.org
Climate change
Climate change Explaining climate change and global warming The global climate has been changing since time began and will continue to change into the future. The Earth's temperature has fluctuated in the last few hundred...

Read more...
How Dams Are Reshaping the World for the Better and Worse

01-06-2021 Grenius.org
How Dams Are Reshaping the World for the Better and Worse
How Dams Are Reshaping the World for the Better and Worse You have likely seen a dam before and may even benefit from its energy-producing capacity. But do you really know what a dam is and how it works? Do you also know that dams...

Read more...
The Engineering Behind Cloud Seeding: The Art of Creating Rain

01-05-2021 Grenius.org
The Engineering Behind Cloud Seeding: The Art of Creating Rain
The Engineering Behind Cloud Seeding: The Art of Creating Rain Cloud seeding produces rain by manipulating clouds. Did you know that countries across the globe are using some sort of weather modification program? In fact, the...

Read more...
Chemtrail conspiracy theory

01-04-2021 Grenius.org
Chemtrail conspiracy theory
Chemtrail conspiracy theory This article is about the conspiracy theory that contrails are deliberate releases of poison. An Airbus A340's engines leaving a water condensation trail (contrail) - miniature clouds formed by the...

Read more...
Earth's Magnetic North Pole Continues Drifting

01-03-2021 Grenius.org
Earth's Magnetic North Pole Continues Drifting
Earth's magnetic north pole Earth's magnetic north pole, which has been wandering faster than expected in recent years, has now crossed the prime meridian. The team of researchers that maintain the World Magnetic Model (WMM) has...

Read more...
Planned Obsolescence: How the Products You Buy are Designed to Break

01-02-2021 Grenius.org
Planned Obsolescence: How the Products You Buy are Designed to Break
How many times have you bought an electronic device, only to find out that it has stopped functioning properly just a short time after your purchase? You spent so much money on it, and suddenly you're sad to know that it's not working...

Read more...
Nanotechnology / nanoparticles - a new hazard

01-01-2021 Grenius.org
Nanotechnology / nanoparticles - a new hazard
Nanotechnology - a new hazard Nanotechnology is the generic name given to the production or use of very small, or 'nano' particles. These are particles that are less than one hundred nanometres or about one thousandth the width of a...

Read more...
E numbers are harmfull

01-12-2020 Grenius.org
E numbers are harmfull
Most E numbers in food are bad, there is no doubt of that. This article gives a specific list of substances that are banned in certain countries, and others that are known to provoke allergic reactions in sensitive people. E numbers...

Read more...
Aluminum in cosmetics / deodorants / dermal products dangerous to health

01-11-2020 Grenius.org
Aluminum in cosmetics / deodorants / dermal products dangerous to health
The potential toxicity of aluminum in cosmetics has been a concern for several years. Often accused of promoting breast cancer or Alzheimer's disease, he was the subject of an assessment by the National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and...

Read more...
Waste sorting

01-10-2020 Grenius.org
Waste sorting
Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. Waste sorting can occur manually at the household and collected through curbside collection schemes, or automatically separated in materials recovery facilities...

Read more...

Grenius